causes of caste inequality

These studies also point to continuing attitudinal barriers that subject low caste applicants for jobs in major companies, and people from remote tribal regions, to negative stereotypes that may over whelm their formal accomplishments in the eyes of employers. Casteism as a Major Rural Social Problem: Meaning, Causes, Solution and Suggestion. He draws distinctions between situations in which individuals are kept out (or left out) and circumstances of inclusion (including forced inclusion) on deeply unfavourable terms. The consequences of discrimination can lead to deprivation indirectly, through passive discrimination in which discouragement and lower self-confidence results in poor performance, or through direct routes that limit access to income or education that is mobility enhancing. Most contentious is the notion that the policy which has governed the allocation of places in higher education, public employment, and government itself should be extended to the private sector. Gender inequalities, and their social causes, impact India's sex ratio, women's health over their lifetimes, their educational attainment, and economic conditions. Caste or ‘Varna’1 system is the basic foundation of Hindu society where different groups and individual interact with each other in different ways (Bhattachan et.al, 2009). Lack of social mobility: People do not have the right or option of changing their caste. Caste and Economie Discrimination: Causes, Consequences and Remedies This paper provides a theoretical introduction to the study of discrimination with particular reference to the caste system. A caste system stratifies the whole society. Economic efficiency is also affected by reducing the job commitment and effort among workers who perceive themselves as victims of discrimination, and by reducing the magnitude of investment in human capital by discriminated groups because the return on their investment is weakened. Segregation depending on job capability:Caste system determined your social status by your ability of doing a job. It also becomes an obstacle in achieving social mobility. This will lead to improvement of behaviour between different sexes simultaneously, with which casteism will be actively refuted. Haan, De Arjan (1997): ‘Poverty and Social Exclusion: A Comparison of Debates on Deprivation’, Poverty Research Unit, Working Paper No 2, University of Sussex, Brighton. As these increase, casteism decreases because the indi­viduals will have the chance to express their instincts and motives outside the caste. ii. While many Black and low-income families have seen their health and livelihoods at increased risk, wealthier and disproportionately white families and communities have been better able to weather the economic fallout—a stark reflection of racial wealth inequality. One was expected to follow the path of their ancestors and stick to their hereditary based profession. Caste is a major indicator of health outcomes and mandates the need for interventions that change social structures. According to G. S. Ghurye, the conflict originating in casteism can be removed by encouraging inter-caste marriages. The papers are the fruit of a two-year collaboration between researchers at the Indian Institute for Dalit Studies and sociologists supported by Princeton University’s Institute for International and Regional Studies. This is a struggle between social ideals, but fundamentally as well, one that is based on disagreements about the empirical state of markets. Marital rules such as endogamy, i.e., marriage within the group is another factor. The occupational and wage differentials that research documents reflect the accumulated benefits of family connections that enhance the matching process for high status students, while making it harder for the low status but well qualified students to compete. In all instances, we speak here of restrictions (formal and informal) on the entry of subordinate groups to the market and/or through selective inclusion with unequal treatment. This paper provides a theoretical introduction to the study of discrimination with particular reference to the caste system. X. Casteism sometimes leads to religious conversions, especially among the low caste groups, who are not financially sound. The inequality created by the caste system is very big in different sorts of ways. However when it comes to providing equal opportunity through instruments like reservations, we see considerable disagreement. A caste system stratifies the whole society. Sen, Amartya (2000): ‘Social Exclusion: Concept, Application, and Scrutiny’, Working Paper, Social Development Paper No 1, Asian Development Bank, Bangkok, June. Given the virtues of increasing economic efficiency and growth, as well as reducing poverty and inequality, there is a compelling interest in diminishing the market discrimination. It is therefore important to review what we know about caste as a source of inequality before introducing the empirical papers. for suggesting this special section and for putting together Trade economist Paul Krugman supports the proposition that globalization is an important cause of inequality. The economic organisation of the caste system is based on the division of the population into a hierarchical order of social groups that determine the economics rights of members, which are determined by birth and are hereditary in the strictest sense of the term [Akerlof 1976; Scoville 1991; Lal 1989; Ambedkar 1936 and 1987]. According to the famous sociologists Sylvia Walby, patriarchy is “a system of social structure and practices in which men dominate, oppress and exploit women”. Exclusion from the access to markets has series of adverse consequences not only on income distribution but also on economic growth. Communication between rural and urban areas became easy through urbani­zation. Finally, Madheswaran and Attewell contribute an econometric analysis of the National Sample Survey of India, which shows a 15 per cent wage penalty for scheduled caste and scheduled tribe respondents, compared to otherwise equivalent higher caste workers. Causes of Inequalities: There are several causes which give rise to inequality of incomes in an economy: (i) Inheritance: Some persons are born with a silver spoon. Sadly, the opposite prevails: the cost of enforcement is low and the economic gains associated with exploited labour conspire to prevent change. A number of titles of EPW/Sameeksha Trust Books are now available in Amazon Kindle. As such there is no need of safeguards against possible market discrimination. What, then, can be done? Similarly, the caste system is defined as a division of society based on differences of wealth, inherited rank or privileged profession, occupation or race. Inequality or extreme inequality is a result of gov't taking over resources and assets. Market discrimination will persist, if all firms practice discrimination. reference to the caste system. Weisskopf, Thomas (2004): Affirmative Action in the United States and India: A Comparative Perspective, Routledge, New York. These measures are supposed to enhance the capacity of groups historically subjected to discrimination to develop businesses of their own and enhance their employability in industries and in occupations that pay well. In such a society, there is every possibility for caste conflicts to occur. For the low caste untouchables on the other hand, the restriction against claiming more prestigious occu pations will compel them to remain involuntarily unemployed. The current pattern of inter-group inequality closely matches the economic scheme of the caste system. Members of a caste try to give all facilities to the persons, who are from their own caste and in doing so, they do not hesitate to involve in the most corrupt activities. A community-based system of enforcement regulates caste privileges by means of social ostracism, violence, and economic penalties that find their justification in elements of Hindu religion [Lal 1989; Ambedkar 1936 and 1987].Although strictly speaking a Hindu tradition, castes have emerged in religions that provide no theological justification for practices of exclusion or pollution, such as Islam, Sikkism, and other religions of India, chiefly because low caste Hindus have attempted to escape the confines of their ascriptive identities through religious conversion. highlighting the ways in which caste persists as a system of inequality that burdens the Indian Taken as a whole, they document widespread patterns of discrimination and underlying attitudinal orientations – based on caste and religion – that contribute to inequality in employment and wages in the modern, formal sector of India’s economy. Labour and capital fail to move from one occupation to another even when the wage rate and rate of return (on investment) is higher in alternative fields. This paper provides a theoretical introduction to the study of discrimination with particular Lal, Deepak (1989): The Hindu Equilibrium: Volume I: Cultural Stability and Economic Stagnation – India c 1500BC-AD1980, Clarendon Press, Oxford. Illiteracy can lead to social evils like child labour, mal-practices, child marriage and untouchability. Market discrimination will persist, if all firms practice discrimination. Far from disappearing as the economy modernises, discrimination remains a problem which, for reasons outlined here, is not amenable to self correction, but rather requires interventionist policies to remedy. Market failures are created via economic discrimination as an inefficient allocation of labour among firms emerges, and wages recede below the marginal product for workers of discriminated groups. These conflicts have their origin in casteism, which refers to the hatred of one caste by the other, or the attempts made by the members of one caste to gain personal advantages to the detriment of interests of the other caste members. some other causes of economic inequality may be; 1.Some people stick to sure paid jobs( no risk salaries eg teaching,police etc which are low paying) and fear high risk but highly earning jobs like businesses. In order to achieve such status, the members even adopt the most improper methods to enhance the prestige of their caste. Casteism is one of the rural social problems, which is very peculiar to the Indian soci­ety. In order to achieve such status, the members even adopt the most improper methods to enhance the prestige of their caste. Those who regard this as insufficient, argue instead, that an interventionist policy is necessary because self-correction takes too long or is weakened, particularly in societies like India with enormous surplus labour. The policy of economic empowerment is essentially directed towards improving the ownership of assets like agricultural land, capital for business, entrepreneurial skills and education. higher caste individuals and involuntary unemployment for those at the bottom. The papers presented here were conceived as tests of the proposition that discrimination is no longer an issue in Indian labour markets, particularly in the formal, private sector. Moreover, because it is built on a foundation of restriction, the caste system fosters inter-group conflict that is socially harmful and diverts human resources to destructive ends. It is a place of great beauty, soaked with the history of many kinds of inequality, including caste and poverty, but also of resistance to such inequality. Either type can generate adverse effects. In these papers, we are principally concerned with caste-based discrimination and secondarily with exclusion based on religion. Disclaimer 9. The woman of the higher caste must be a Virgin when they marry a man but the woman from the lower caste … They may take some time to appear. Amartya Sen (2000) has drawn worldwide attention to the dimensions of social exclusion. For example, a locksmith was considered of lower caste than a business person. An un… V. Provision of cultural and economic equality among different sections of the society reduces the chances of jealousy and competition. Market failure associated with economic discrimination leads to lower economic growth, inequality in income, poverty and inter-group conflict. Economic efficiency is also affected by reducing the job commitment and effort among workers who perceive themselves as victims of discrimination, and by reducing the magnitude of investment in human capital by discriminated groups because the return on their investment is weakened. Further not all markets are competitive. They have to live with the caste that they are born in. iv. Designed, developed and maintained by Yodasoft Technologies Pvt. Some of the ill-effects of casteism are as follows: i. Casteism perpetuates the practice of untouchability and becomes an obstacle in providing social equality and justice. Rich inheri­tance gives them a start in life and if they are reasonably prudent, they keep up the lead. Unless we disaggregate the income and expenditure data by caste, sex and ethnicity, it will be hard to address causes of inequality. By restricting the movement of labour between occupations, caste becomes a direct cause of voluntary unemployment for, We are grateful to Katherine Newman and Sukhadeo Thorat, for suggesting this special section and for putting together. That the Indian educational system has a long way to go to achieve caste, class and regional parity is beyond dispute. Phone: +91-22-40638282   |   Fax: +91-22-24934515   |   Email: Editorial - edit@epw.in  |  Subscription - circulation@epw.in   |   Advertisement - advertisement@epw.in  Indian society is characterised by persistent and pervasive inter-group inequality in economic life. With widespread inequality in opportunities for education resulting from the operation of socio-economic factors education seems to have failed as an effective equalizing factor.However it is not that education has not contributed at all to the process of upward social mobility but the momentum has been slow considering the social fabric of the country. 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